% This is "www2004-sample.tex" V1.2 January 26 2004 % This file should be compiled with V1.4 of "www2004-submission.class" % % This example file demonstrates the use of the 'www2004-submission.cls' % V1.4 LaTeX2e document class file. It is for those submitting % articles to the WWW'04 Conference WHO DO NOT WISH TO % STRICTLY ADHERE TO THE SIGS (PUBS-BOARD-ENDORSED) STYLE. % The 'www2004-submission.cls' file will produce a similar-looking, % albeit, 'tighter' paper resulting in, invariably, fewer pages. % % ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- % This .tex file (and associated .cls V1.4) produces: % 1) NO Permission Statement % 2) WWW'04-specific conference (location) information % 3) The Copyright Line with ACM data % 4) NO page numbers % % --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- % This .tex source is an example which *does* use % the .bib file (from which the .bbl file % is produced). % REMEMBER HOWEVER: After having produced the .bbl file, % and prior to final submission, you *NEED* to 'insert' % your .bbl file into your source .tex file so as to provide % ONE 'self-contained' source file. % % ================= IF YOU HAVE QUESTIONS ======================= % Questions regarding the SIGS styles, SIGS policies and % procedures, Conferences etc. should be sent to % Julie Goetz (goetz@acm.org) or Adrienne Griscti (griscti@acm.org) % % Technical questions only to % Gerald Murray (murray@acm.org) % =============================================================== % % For tracking purposes - this is V1.2 - January 26 2004 \documentclass{www2004-submission} \begin{document} % \title{Alternate {\ttlit ACM} SIG Proceedings Paper in LaTeX Format\titlenote{(Produces the WWW2004-specific release, location and copyright information). For use with www2004-submission.cls V1.4. Supported by ACM.}} %\subtitle{[Extended Abstract] %\titlenote{A full version of this paper is available as %\textit{Author's Guide to Preparing ACM SIG Proceedings Using %\LaTeX$2_\epsilon$\ and BibTeX} at %\texttt{www.acm.org/eaddress.htm}}} % % You need the command \numberofauthors to handle the "boxing" % and alignment of the authors under the title, and to add % a section for authors number 4 through n. % % Up to the first three authors are aligned under the title; % use the \alignauthor commands below to handle those names % and affiliations. Add names, affiliations, addresses for % additional authors as the argument to \additionalauthors; % these will be set for you without further effort on your % part as the last section in the body of your article BEFORE % References or any Appendices. \numberofauthors{5} % % Put no more than the first THREE authors in the \author command % NOTE: All authors should be on the first page. For instructions % for more than 3 authors, see: % http://www.acm.org/sigs/pubs/proceed/sigfaq.htm#a18 \author{ % % The command \alignauthor (no curly braces needed) should % precede each author name, affiliation/snail-mail address and % e-mail address. Additionally, tag each line of % affiliation/address with \affaddr, and tag the %% e-mail address with \email. \alignauthor Ben Trovato\titlenote{Dr.~Trovato also works at...}\\ \affaddr{Institute for Clarity in Documentation}\\ \affaddr{1932 Wallamaloo Lane}\\ \affaddr{Wallamaloo, New Zealand}\\ \email{trovato@corporation.com} \alignauthor G.K.M. Tobin\\ \affaddr{Institute for Clarity in Documentation}\\ \affaddr{P.O. Box 1212}\\ \affaddr{Dublin, Ohio 43017-6221}\\ \email{webmaster@marysville-ohio.com} \alignauthor Lars Th{\Large{\sf{\o}}}rv{$\ddot{\mbox{a}}$}ld\\ \affaddr{The Th{\large{\sf{\o}}}rv{$\ddot{\mbox{a}}$}ld Group}\\ \affaddr{1 Th{\large{\sf{\o}}}rv{$\ddot{\mbox{a}}$}ld Circle}\\ \affaddr{Hekla, Iceland}\\ \email{larst@affiliation.org} } \additionalauthors{Additional authors: John Smith (The Th{\o}rv\"{a}ld Group, email: {\texttt{jsmith@affiliation.org}}) and Julius P.~Kumquat (The Kumquat Consortium, email: {\texttt{jpkumquat@consortium.net}}).} \date{30 July 1999} \maketitle \begin{abstract} This paper provides a sample of a LaTeX document which conforms, somewhat loosely, to the formatting guidelines for ACM SIG Proceedings. It is an {\em alternate} style which produces a {\em tighter-looking} paper and was designed in response to concerns expressed, by authors, over page-budgets. It complements the document \textit{Author's (Alternate) Guide to Preparing ACM SIG Proceedings Using \LaTeX$2_\epsilon$\ and Bib\TeX}. This source file has been written with the intention of being compiled under \LaTeX$2_\epsilon$\ and BibTeX. The developers have tried to include every imaginable sort of ``bells and whistles", such as a subtitle, footnotes on title, subtitle and authors, as well as in the text, and every optional component (e.g. Acknowledgments, Additional Authors, Appendices), not to mention examples of equations, theorems, tables and figures. To make best use of this sample document, run it through \LaTeX\ and BibTeX, and compare this source code with the printed output produced by the dvi file. A compiled PDF version is available on the web page to help you with the `look and feel'. \end{abstract} % A category with only the three required fields \category{H.4.m}{Information Systems}{Miscellaneous} \category{D.2}{Software}{Software Engineering} %A category including the fourth, optional field follows... \category{D.2.8}{Software Engineering}{Metrics}[complexity measures, performance measures] \terms{Delphi theory} \keywords{ACM proceedings, \LaTeX, text tagging} \section{Introduction} The \textit{proceedings} are the records of a conference. ACM seeks to give these conference by-products a uniform, high-quality appearance. To do this, ACM has some rigid requirements for the format of the proceedings documents: there is a specified format (balanced double columns), a specified set of fonts (Arial or Helvetica and Times Roman) in certain specified sizes (for instance, 9 point for body copy), a specified live area (18 $\times$ 23.5 cm [7" $\times$ 9.25"]) centered on the page, specified size of margins (2.54cm [1"] top and bottom and 1.9cm [.75"] left and right; specified column width (8.45cm [3.33"]) and gutter size (.083cm [.33"]). The good news is, with only a handful of manual settings\footnote{Two of these, the {\texttt{\char'134 numberofauthors}} and {\texttt{\char'134 alignauthor}} commands, you have already used; another, {\texttt{\char'134 balancecolumns}}, will be used in your very last run of \LaTeX\ to ensure balanced column heights on the last page.}, the \LaTeX\ document class file handles all of this for you. The remainder of this document is concerned with showing, in the context of an ``actual'' document, the \LaTeX\ commands specifically available for denoting the structure of a proceedings paper, rather than with giving rigorous descriptions or explanations of such commands. \section{The {\secit Body} of The Paper} Typically, the body of a paper is organized into a hierarchical structure, with numbered or unnumbered headings for sections, subsections, sub-subsections, and even smaller sections. The command \texttt{{\char'134}section} that precedes this paragraph is part of such a hierarchy.\footnote{This is the second footnote. It starts a series of three footnotes that add nothing informational, but just give an idea of how footnotes work and look. It is a wordy one, just so you see how a longish one plays out.} \LaTeX\ handles the numbering and placement of these headings for you, when you use the appropriate heading commands around the titles of the headings. If you want a sub-subsection or smaller part to be unnumbered in your output, simply append an asterisk to the command name. Examples of both numbered and unnumbered headings will appear throughout the balance of this sample document. Because the entire article is contained in the \textbf{document} environment, you can indicate the start of a new paragraph with a blank line in your input file; that is why this sentence forms a separate paragraph. \subsection{Type Changes and {\subsecit Special} Characters} We have already seen several typeface changes in this sample. You can indicate italicized words or phrases in your text with the command \texttt{{\char'134}textit}; emboldening with the command \texttt{{\char'134}textbf} and typewriter-style (for instance, for computer code) with \texttt{{\char'134}texttt}. But remember, you do not have to indicate typestyle changes when such changes are part of the \textit{structural} elements of your article; for instance, the heading of this subsection will be in a sans serif\footnote{A third footnote, here. Let's make this a rather short one to see how it looks.} typeface, but that is handled by the document class file. Take care with the use of\footnote{A fourth, and last, footnote.} the curly braces in typeface changes; they mark the beginning and end of the text that is to be in the different typeface. You can use whatever symbols, accented characters, or non-English characters you need anywhere in your document; you can find a complete list of what is available in the \textit{\LaTeX\ User's Guide}\cite{Lamport:LaTeX}. \subsection{Math Equations} You may want to display math equations in three distinct styles: inline, numbered or non-numbered display. Each of the three are discussed in the next sections. \subsubsection{Inline (In-text) Equations} A formula that appears in the running text is called an inline or in-text formula. It is produced by the \textbf{math} environment, which can be invoked with the usual \texttt{{\char'134}begin. . .{\char'134}end} construction or with the short form \texttt{\$. . .\$}. You can use any of the symbols and structures, from $\alpha$ to $\omega$, available in \LaTeX\cite{Lamport:LaTeX}; this section will simply show a few examples of in-text equations in context. Notice how this equation: \begin{math}\lim_{n\rightarrow \infty}x=0\end{math}, set here in in-line math style, looks slightly different when set in display style. (See next section). \subsubsection{Display Equations} A numbered display equation -- one set off by vertical space from the text and centered horizontally -- is produced by the \textbf{equation} environment. An unnumbered display equation is produced by the \textbf{displaymath} environment. Again, in either environment, you can use any of the symbols and structures available in \LaTeX; this section will just give a couple of examples of display equations in context. First, consider the equation, shown as an inline equation above: \begin{equation}\lim_{n\rightarrow \infty}x=0\end{equation} Notice how it is formatted somewhat differently in the \textbf{displaymath} environment. Now, we'll enter an unnumbered equation: \begin{displaymath}\sum_{i=0}^{\infty} x + 1\end{displaymath} and follow it with another numbered equation: \begin{equation}\sum_{i=0}^{\infty}x_i=\int_{0}^{\pi+2} f\end{equation} just to demonstrate \LaTeX's able handling of numbering. \subsection{Citations} Citations to articles \cite{bowman:reasoning, clark:pct, braams:babel, herlihy:methodology}, conference proceedings \cite{clark:pct} or books \cite{salas:calculus, Lamport:LaTeX} listed in the Bibliography section of your article will occur throughout the text of your article. You should use BibTeX to automatically produce this bibliography; you simply need to insert one of several citation commands with a key of the item cited in the proper location in the \texttt{.tex} file \cite{Lamport:LaTeX}. The key is a short reference you invent to uniquely identify each work; in this sample document, the key is the first author's surname and a word from the title. This identifying key is included with each item in the \texttt{.bib} file for your article. The details of the construction of the \texttt{.bib} file are beyond the scope of this sample document, but more information can be found in the \textit{Author's Guide}, and exhaustive details in the \textit{\LaTeX\ User's Guide}\cite{Lamport:LaTeX}. This article shows only the plainest form of the citation command, using \texttt{{\char'134}cite}. This is what is stipulated in the SIGS style specifications. No other citation format is endorsed or supported. \subsection{Tables} Because tables cannot be split across pages, the best placement for them is typically the top of the page nearest their initial cite. To ensure this proper ``floating'' placement of tables, use the environment \textbf{table} to enclose the table's contents and the table caption. The contents of the table itself must go in the \textbf{tabular} environment, to be aligned properly in rows and columns, with the desired horizontal and vertical rules. Again, detailed instructions on \textbf{tabular} material is found in the \textit{\LaTeX\ User's Guide}. Immediately following this sentence is the point at which Table 1 is included in the input file; compare the placement of the table here with the table in the printed dvi output of this document. \begin{table} \centering \caption{Frequency of Special Characters} \begin{tabular}{|c|c|l|} \hline Non-English or Math&Frequency&Comments\\ \hline \O & 1 in 1,000& For Swedish names\\ \hline $\pi$ & 1 in 5& Common in math\\ \hline \$ & 4 in 5 & Used in business\\ \hline $\Psi^2_1$ & 1 in 40,000& Unexplained usage\\ \hline\end{tabular} \end{table} To set a wider table, which takes up the whole width of the page's live area, use the environment \textbf{table*} to enclose the table's contents and the table caption. As with a single-column table, this wide table will ``float" to a location deemed more desirable. Immediately following this sentence is the point at which Table 2 is included in the input file; again, it is instructive to compare the placement of the table here with the table in the printed dvi output of this document. \begin{table*} \centering \caption{Some Typical Commands} \begin{tabular}{|c|c|l|} \hline Command&A Number&Comments\\ \hline \texttt{{\char'134}alignauthor} & 100& Author alignment\\ \hline \texttt{{\char'134}numberofauthors}& 200& Author enumeration\\ \hline \texttt{{\char'134}table}& 300 & For tables\\ \hline \texttt{{\char'134}table*}& 400& For wider tables\\ \hline\end{tabular} \end{table*} % end the environment with {table*}, NOTE not {table}! \subsection{Figures} Like tables, figures cannot be split across pages; the best placement for them is typically the top or the bottom of the page nearest their initial cite. To ensure this proper ``floating'' placement of figures, use the environment \textbf{figure} to enclose the figure and its caption. This sample document contains examples of \textbf{.eps} and \textbf{.ps} files to be displayable with \LaTeX. More details on each of these is found in the \textit{Author's Guide}. \begin{figure} \centering %\epsfig{file=fly.eps} \caption{A sample black and white graphic (.eps format).} \end{figure} \begin{figure} \centering %\epsfig{file=fly.eps, height=1in, width=1in} \caption{A sample black and white graphic (.eps format) that has been resized with the \texttt{epsfig} command.} \end{figure} As was the case with tables, you may want a figure that spans two columns. To do this, and still to ensure proper ``floating'' placement of tables, use the environment \textbf{figure*} to enclose the figure and its caption. \begin{figure*} \centering %\epsfig{file=flies.eps} \caption{A sample black and white graphic (.eps format) that needs to span two columns of text.} \end{figure*} and don't forget to end the environment with {figure*}, not {figure}! Note that either {\textbf{.ps}} or {\textbf{.eps}} formats are used; use the \texttt{{\char'134}epsfig} or \texttt{{\char'134}psfig} commands as appropriate for the different file types. \begin{figure} \centering %\psfig{file=rosette.ps, height=1in, width=1in,} \caption{A sample black and white graphic (.ps format) that has been resized with the \texttt{psfig} command.} \end{figure} \subsection{Theorem-like Constructs} Other common constructs that may occur in your article are the forms for logical constructs like theorems, axioms, corollaries and proofs. There are two forms, one produced by the command \texttt{{\char'134}newtheorem} and the other by the command \texttt{{\char'134}newdef}; perhaps the clearest and easiest way to distinguish them is to compare the two in the output of this sample document: This uses the \textbf{theorem} environment, created by the \texttt{{\char'134}newtheorem} command: \newtheorem{theorem}{Theorem} \begin{theorem} Let $f$ be continuous on $[a,b]$. If $G$ is an antiderivative for $f$ on $[a,b]$, then \begin{displaymath}\int^b_af(t)dt = G(b) - G(a).\end{displaymath} \end{theorem} The other uses the \textbf{definition} environment, created by the \texttt{{\char'134}newdef} command: \newdef{definition}{Definition} \begin{definition} If $z$ is irrational, then by $e^z$ we mean the unique number which has logarithm $z$: \begin{displaymath}{\log e^z = z}\end{displaymath} \end{definition} Two lists of constructs that use one of these forms is given in the \textit{Author's Guidelines}. There is one other similar construct environment, which is already set up for you; i.e. you must \textit{not} use a \texttt{{\char'134}newdef} command to create it: the \textbf{proof} environment. Here is a example of its use: \begin{proof} Suppose on the contrary there exists a real number $L$ such that \begin{displaymath} \lim_{x\rightarrow\infty} \frac{f(x)}{g(x)} = L. \end{displaymath} Then \begin{displaymath} l=\lim_{x\rightarrow c} f(x) = \lim_{x\rightarrow c} \left[ g{x} \cdot \frac{f(x)}{g(x)} \right ] = \lim_{x\rightarrow c} g(x) \cdot \lim_{x\rightarrow c} \frac{f(x)}{g(x)} = 0\cdot L = 0, \end{displaymath} which contradicts our assumption that $l\neq 0$. \end{proof} Complete rules about using these environments and using the two different creation commands are in the \textit{Author's Guide}; please consult it for more detailed instructions. If you need to use another construct, not listed therein, which you want to have the same formatting as the Theorem or the Definition\cite{salas:calculus} shown above, use the \texttt{{\char'134}newtheorem} or the \texttt{{\char'134}newdef} command, respectively, to create it. \subsection*{A {\secit Caveat} for the \TeX\ Expert} Because you have just been given permission to use the \texttt{{\char'134}newdef} command to create a new form, you might think you can use \TeX's \texttt{{\char'134}def} to create a new command: \textit{Please refrain from doing this!} Remember that your \LaTeX\ source code is primarily intended to create camera-ready copy, but may be converted to other forms -- e.g. HTML. If you inadvertently omit some or all of the \texttt{{\char'134}def}s recompilation will be, to say the least, problematic. \section{Conclusions} This paragraph will end the body of this sample document. Remember that you might still have Acknowledgments or Appendices; brief samples of these follow. There is still the Bibliography to deal with; and we will make a disclaimer about that here: with the exception of the reference to the \LaTeX\ book, the citations in this paper are to articles which have nothing to do with the present subject and are used as examples only. %\end{document} % This is where a 'short' article might terminate %ACKNOWLEDGMENTS are optional \section{Acknowledgments} This section is optional; it is a location for you to acknowledge grants, funding, editing assistance and what have you. In the present case, for example, the authors would like to thank Gerald Murray of ACM for his help in codifying this \textit{Author's Guide} and the \textbf{.cls} and \textbf{.tex} files that it describes. % % The following two commands are all you need in the % initial runs of your .tex file to % produce the bibliography for the citations in your paper. \bibliographystyle{abbrv} \bibliography{sigproc} % sigproc.bib is the name of the Bibliography in this case % You must have a proper ".bib" file % and remember to run: % latex bibtex latex latex % to resolve all references % % ACM needs 'a single self-contained file'! % %APPENDICES are optional %\balancecolumns \appendix %Appendix A \section{Headings in Appendices} The rules about hierarchical headings discussed above for the body of the article are different in the appendices. In the \textbf{appendix} environment, the command \textbf{section} is used to indicate the start of each Appendix, with alphabetic order designation (i.e. the first is A, the second B, etc.) and a title (if you include one). So, if you need hierarchical structure \textit{within} an Appendix, start with \textbf{subsection} as the highest level. Here is an outline of the body of this document in Appendix-appropriate form: \subsection{Introduction} \subsection{The Body of the Paper} \subsubsection{Type Changes and Special Characters} \subsubsection{Math Equations} \paragraph{Inline (In-text) Equations} \paragraph{Display Equations} \subsubsection{Citations} \subsubsection{Tables} \subsubsection{Figures} \subsubsection{Theorem-like Constructs} \subsubsection*{A Caveat for the \TeX\ Expert} \subsection{Conclusions} \subsection{Acknowledgments} \subsection{Additional Authors} This section is inserted by \LaTeX; you do not insert it. You just add the names and information in the \texttt{{\char'134}additionalauthors} command at the start of the document. \subsection{References} Generated by bibtex from your ~.bib file. Run latex, then bibtex, then latex twice (to resolve references) to create the ~.bbl file. Insert that ~.bbl file into the .tex source file and comment out the command \texttt{{\char'134}thebibliography}. % % This next section command marks the start of % Appendix B, and does not continue the present hierarchy \section{More Help for the Hardy} The www2004-submission.cls file itself is chock-full of succinct and helpful comments. If you consider yourself a moderately experienced to expert user of \LaTeX, you may find reading it useful but please remember not to change it. \balancecolumns % GM July 2000 % That's all folks! \end{document}